Histogram Generator

The instrument visualizes electoral data in the form of histograms.

Suitable for aggregation values, i.e. for Y axis, are number of PECs, number of registered voters, number of votes, etc.

Video tutorial: "Two-Humped Moscow". (in Russian). In constituencies with uniform population, the violation of unimodality of distributions might be an indicator of fraud and manipulation. Falsifications at Duma Elections of 2011 were confirmed by witnesses and evidence. After mass protests of 2011-2012, the authorities has been abstaining from falsifications in Moscow, and the unimodality in this constituency was restored and has been observed ever since.

You can open the instrument in a new window/tab.



Scatter-plot diagram visualizes correlations of two chosen values. Each pair of values, most often they are a subset of voting results by PECs, corresponds to a point whose coordinates are equal to the values. Uniform distributions are expected, without clusters, lines, abnormalities and artefacts.

Method Description

Scatter-Plotter in the Lab

The Last Digit

In a random set of integer values, the last digit should occur with equal probability: 1/10. Deviation from randomness might be legit or might be a sign of artificial interference.

Method Description

Last Digit Analyzer in the Lab


The values under study are aggregated by intervals (bins). The aggregated sums are proportional to the heights of the bars. Most of the expected distributions are expected to be unimodal.

Method Description

Histogram Generator in Laboratory