Gabdulvaleev's diagram

The method visualizes geographical and/or administrative dependencies of abnormalities.

This original visualization method was proposed by Azat Gabdulvaleev (Russia). It combines the usual scatter-plot of results with the linear representation of the geographical/administrative hierarchy of PECs.

Each dot represents a precinct election commission (PEC). The PECs are grouped by higher subdivisions, e.g. district or territorial commissions (DECs or TECs), and are placed along the X-axis in the ascending order of their numbers/names. In their turn, TECs groups are placed in the ascending order of their numbers/names too. The alignment reflects geographical proximity of corresponding constituencies and administrative submission of the electoral committees. On the Y-axis, you can plot electoral results of your choice.

To visualize the administrative submission of the PECs, you can use different types of colour coding. 

Video tutorial "How to build "Volodin's Peak" with your own hands and see the fraud with your own eyes":



You can open the instrument in a new window/tab.

module for the instrument

Scatter-plot short module


Scatter-plot diagram visualizes correlations of two chosen values. Each pair of values, most often they are a subset of voting results by PECs, corresponds to a point whose coordinates are equal to the values. Uniform distributions are expected, without clusters, lines, abnormalities and artefacts.

Method Description

Scatter-Plotter in the Lab

Last digit short module

The Last Digit

In a random set of integer values, the last digit should occur with equal probability: 1/10. Deviation from randomness might be legit or might be a sign of artificial interference.

Method Description

Last Digit Analyzer in the Lab

Histo short module


The values under study are aggregated by intervals (bins). The aggregated sums are proportional to the heights of the bars. Most of the expected distributions are expected to be unimodal.

Method Description

Histogram Generator in Laboratory